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Programs

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Programs

History

Cultivating the young generation for the future is the foundation of a nation's development. Hence education is and will continue to be essential for generations to come. It is necessary to have a professional higher education institute which engages in research on educational theories and practices to provide an impetus for government policies and education reform as well as to serve as a foundation for the professional development of teachers and school leaders. Being well recognized as the top-notch institute, this department was incepted to take on this crucial role in Taiwan.

The Taiwan Provincial Teachers' College was founded in June 1946 with the Department of Education being one of the original seven departments. In 1954, the Graduate Institute of Educational Research was founded at College in order to offer a master program. In 1971, the program was expanded to include the doctoral program. In order to streamline the programs as well as confirm to the modification of University Acts of 1987 and 1944, the undergraduate department and graduate institute were combined to form the Department of Education, which offers undergraduate, master, and doctoral programs.

Mission

To foster an environment that cultivates excellent talents for educational research and practice. The department offers a comprehensive, well-designed curriculum which allows graduates to be equipped with knowledge and ability in instructional practices as well as school administration. Graduates are encouraged to take the civil service examination or work in related field, such as education, social education, and other education related industries. Additionally, administering effective professional development programs for in-service teachers and school leaders has been a major task for this department.

To become a leading educational research institute in Taiwan. Based on the expertise of faculty members, this department comprises four academic divisions: Philosophy and History of Education, Sociology of Education, Educational Policy and Administration, and Curriculum and Instruction. The research capacities of each division are very broad and diverse, and the research outcome are very outstanding in both quantity and quality.

To actively participate in policy-making and provide professional services to local school. Faculty members have been active in taking part in educational policy- making at both the central government as well as the local governments, in providing input on the selection of school principals, school evaluation policies, and teacher recruitment criteria. All of these activities enhance the social impact of this department.

Features
  • A renowned department with a long history and well-structured programs.
  • A strong faculty team with outstanding performance in teaching and research.
  • A comprehensively-designed curriculum framework with bountiful learning resources.
  • A positive ethos that promote vibrant and close teacher-student interactions.
Curriculum

Two principles guiding the curriculum design for the undergraduate level are: 1) Focusing on the four professional aspects of education (educational foundations, curriculum and instruction, educational policy and administration, and the cultural and education industry), and 2) keeping abreast of the current trends in education development. Thus, undergraduate courses are dual-tracked to cater both to academic and practical needs. On the academic level there are research-oriented advanced courses while on the practical level there are courses to prepare students for future employment in the cultural and/or education industries.

On the master level, the program consists of two divisions: philosophy and history of education, and sociology of education. On the doctoral level, in addition to the mentioned two divisions, there is one more division of educational policy and administration.

History Established on August 1st, 2003, the Graduate Institute of Educational Policy and Administration (GIEPA) was designed by the education policy and administration division. The establishment is tasked by the government to develop policy in higher education and to develop talent in the area of educational policy and administration. GIEPA also focuses on providing professional development for in-service school leaders and administrators, improving research quality in this field, and assisting policy-making in Taiwan.GIPEA plays an important role in influencing relevant education research and education reform.
Mission GIPEA aims to develop talented professionals in educational policy and administration offering high-quality curriculum and academic research. At GIPEA, research and the real-world problem solving are closely connected to each other. Cultivating leaders and promoting evidence-based research are two meansby which to respond to the need for national development as well as enhance the nation's competitiveness in the global arena. Moreover, as part of the transformation of National Taiwan Normal University, GIPEAaims not only to maintain its status as the domestic leader in conducting research in educational policy andadministration, but also aspires to become an internationally recognized research institute.
Features
  • A leading educational research institute with bountiful learning resources.
  • A strong research and teaching faculty with an outstanding student body.
  • An emphasis on bridging the gap between theory and practice.
Curriculum The curriculum framework is based on the vision of cultivating talented education professionals in education policy planning and education administration. The curriculum content aims to bridge the gap between theory and practice. At the master level, it focuses on the dialogue which exists between theory and practice in order to equip students with professional knowledge and competencies. The School Administration Master Program provides an excellent environment for school leaders and administratorsto pursue professional development in order to advance their competencies and discover means to resolvepractical problems.
History National Taiwan Normal University (NTNU) is not only a pioneer of teacher education in Taiwan. It is also a key base of operation for educational researchers. Throughout the past fifty years NTNU has continually prepared excellent teachers and academic researchers. The Curriculum and Instruction Division has a long history, strong faculty, and rich resources. These strengths have resulted in the division providing for the education of a huge group of talented professionals with expertise in the area of curriculum and instruction. These professionals continue to play pivotal roles in Taiwan, such as reflective practitioners and creative innovators in education reform. The Graduate Institute of Curriculum and Instruction (GICI) was established in 2010 and offers both master and doctoral programs. GICI aims to offer integrated curriculum and interdisciplinary research for the purpose of cultivating excellent talent in the field of curriculum and instruction.
Mission The curriculum structure of GICI provides courses on the foundations of curriculum theory, on research methodology, and further specialized courses which train students to both conduct quality research as well as conduct practical work. Graduates of GICI are expected to be hands-on practitioners with a reflective mind characterized by strong critical thinking skills. In addition, by engaging in long-term partnerships with secondary schools, GICI assists schools in improving the quality of teachers as well as curriculum design and curriculum evaluation through appropriately structured professional development programs.
Features
  • Bountiful learning resources with all possibilities for the engaging of educational professionals.
  • An excellent, dedicated faculty team together with industrious, outstanding students.
  • An emphasis on transformative local practices with a global perspective.
Curriculum GICI Offers integrated professional knowledge which equips students with a global perspective and core competences that would assist them in gaining a competitive edge in education profession. Both Mater and Ph.D. programs provide advanced courses in educational foundations, research methodology, and specialized subjects in curriculum and instruction. With regard to the course structure of curriculum and instruction, the focus is on exploring curriculum reform issues and instructional innovations within both local and international contexts. All of these designs aim to promote students’ research ability while helping them to think critically about curriculum and instruction.
History The Department was founded in 1968 under the name Department of Educational Psychology. In 1979, due to the increasing importance of counseling in schools nationwide, a master's program in Counseling was set up. Doctoral programs in Educational Psychology and Counseling Psychology were established in 1987; leading to the reshaping and renaming of the Department.
Mission
  • Train school teacher and counselors to have the liberal knowledge and ability in educational psychology and counseling.
  • Train senior and junior high school counselors to have the specialized knowledge and ability in school guidance and career planning.
  • Train counseling psychologists with high level of academic research ability and practice expertise.
  • Train educational and psychological scholars with high level of academic research quality and practice expertise.
Features
  • Maintain a premier role in teaching and research in the areas of educational psychology and counseling;
  • Advance international cooperation with scholars and students from all over the world; and
  • Participate in community services, including serving individuals who work at local schools, government offices, and non-government agencies.
Curriculum

Our undergraduate curriculum encompasses basic theories in psychology, theories and practice in counseling, and research methods. Both the Master’s Program and the Doctoral Program consist of the following divisions: a) Division of Educational Psychology including a division of Testing Technology, and b) Division of Counseling Psychology.

Our In-service Program offers a M.Ed. degree for people with a full-time job who are interested in mental health.

History The Graduate Institute of Adult and Continuing Education was established in 1985, and offered Ph.D. program in 1995. In 2008, the undergraduate program was integrated into the graduate institute with four major areas in 1) Creative Design for Adult Learning, 2) Program Design and Media Production, 3) Innovative Promotion of Social and Cultural Industries, 4) Organizational Learning and Sustainable Development. The master’s program has two subfields: One is Adult and Continuing Education and the other is Management of Social Enterprises and Cultural Industries. A continuing education program is provided for adult learners or practitioners from social education institutions, non-profit organizations and school systems.
Mission Our educational goal is to cultivate students’ humanitarian spirit, social responsibility and cultural mission for future professional development in adult education, nonprofit organizations, social enterprises, cultural industries and social education institutes.
Features

Both the graduate institute and undergraduate program feature on

  1. Leading trends of innovative lifelong learning for aging society.
  2. Offering diversified courses for multiple professional developments
  3. Cultivating core competencies in program design, media production and organizational management
Curriculum The bachelor’s degree requires successful completion of 128 credits of study. The master’s degree requires a minimum of 35 credits of study, and the doctoral degree 30 credits.
Prospects

Our department focuses on

  1. Enhancing professional development in the field of Adult and Continuing Education.
  2. Nurturing students’ social entrepreneurship and cultural creativity in diverse social and global contexts.
  3. Preparing students’ professional performance with internship and practical training for multiple career development.
History The Department of Human Development and Family Studies, formerly the Department of Home Economics Education, was founded in 1953 with the objective of training secondary school teachers. The Master’s and Doctoral Programs were established in 1982 and 1996 respectively. The Undergraduate and Graduate Program all encompass three major fields – 1) Family Life Education, 2) Early Childhood Development and Education, and 3) Nutritional Science and Education.
Mission

Undergraduate Program

Family Life Education

  1. Train students with professional knowledge and capabilities of multicultural family and family life education.
  2. Cultivate knowledge, skills, and ethics in students to do family life education for multicultural family.
  3. Train students with innovation and research ability in the field of multicultural family.
  4. Cultivate students’ respect and ability to care for multicultural family.

Early Childhood Development & Education

  1. Cultivate students with the important knowledge and capabilities for the education and development of early childhood.
  2. Broaden students’ diverse visions and strengthen their abilities to care children and family of multicultural backgrounds.
  3. Train students with innovation and research ability in the field of early childhood development.
  4. Build students’ capacity to collaborate and ethics to serve society.

Nutritional Science & Education

  1. Train students with professional knowledge and capabilities for nutritional science.
  2. Cultivate students with capacity to practice and promote in clinical nutrition, food service management and community nutrition.
  3. Strengthen students’ professional ethics and nutrition care ability.

Graduate Program

Family Life Education

  1. Train students with professional knowledge and capabilities for multicultural family science.
  2. Cultivate students with capacity of promotion and management in the field of multicultural family and family life education.
  3. Train students with innovation and research ability.
  4. Train students with devotion to improving wellbeing in family.

Early Childhood Development and Education

  1. Train students with profound knowledge and capabilities for the early child education and development and family studies.
  2. Broaden students’ diverse visions and strengthen their abilities to care children and family of multicultural backgrounds.
  3. Cultivate students with innovation and research ability.
  4. Teach students to lead and analyze society trends.
  5. Cultivate students with capacity to collaborate, to serve and do research with ethnics.

Nutritional Science and Education

  1. Train students with research ability in nutritional science.
  2. Strengthen students with advanced practical knowledge and capabilities for nutritional science.
  3. Cultivate students with diverse visions and leading capacity.
Features The focus of our department is to explore the quality of human life in life course perspective. Professional domains include Family Life Education, Early Childhood Development and Education, and Nutritional Science & Education. In an effort to meet urgent societal development needs, our department offers three career tracks for each professional domain: 1) teaching, 2) communication and extension, and 3) research and management.
Curriculum The Undergraduate Program requires the completion of a minimum of 128 credits of study. The Master’s and the Doctorla Programs both require the completion of a minimum of 30 credits of study.
Prospects
  1. To integrate academic research of the professional fields in the department.
  2. Composed of international and local characters, to introduce related theories, practical knowledge and policies.
  3. To provide college graduates and in-service people with on-the-job training and promote the diversities of the job market. Also, to cultivate top talents for education, academic, administration and management.
  4. To bring up teachers of college for the department of family, early childhood education, nutrition and hospitality.

Department of Special Education B.Ed. | M.Ed. | Ph.D.

History The Department of Special Education improves the quality of education and educational opportunities for special needs students in the minority through our commitment to the development of exceptional special education professionals. With the approval of the Ministry of Education, the master’s program was established in 1986 and the baccalaureate program was established in 1990. The two programs were merged into one department under the direction of the first Department Chairperson, Professor Wu-Tien Wu, who had served as the chair of the master’s program and the director of the Special Education Center. The doctoral program was later established in 1992. The Department of Special Education has been cultivating a multitude of teachers and professionals in the field of special education for over 30 years.
Mission
  1. Foster exceptional special education professionals. The goal of the Department with all degree programs is to cultivate teaching, research, and administrative or leadership professionals in special education or related fields at all grade levels. Based on the domestic needs for the advancement of special education, the Department offers short-term in-service teacher training courses or master’s degree summer courses to foster exceptional special education professionals.
  2. Expand academic research in special education. Our faculty has continually conducted research in all areas of special education, integrating theoretical and practical methodologies in domestic academic research.
  3. Guide the comprehensive advancement of special education and promote the social care and integration of students with special needs. By producing seminars, publications, and in-service teacher training courses and by participating in practical special education work, the Department advocates the latest and most correct special education concepts and promotes the social care and integration of students with special needs.
Features
  1. An Emphasis on the Integration of Theory and Practice. The Department faculty actively integrates academia and practice by pursuing academic research while participating in special education policy-making, practical work, and academic organizations. The result is a faculty of leaders in academic and professional sectors.
  2. The Comprehensive Development of Professionals at All Levels. The Department offers undergraduate, master’s, doctoral, and continuing education programs and aims to train and develop the teachers, administrators, or academic researchers required at all professional levels.
  3. The Active Promotion of Academic Research The Department faculty has been regularly publishing their research findings in both domestic and international periodicals or journals. Since 1985, the Department has been publishing the Bulletin of Special Education, the oldest special education academic journal in the Taiwan Social Science Citation Index (TSSCI). Periodically, the Department also hosts academic seminars to promote the results of academic research.
  4. An International Perspective. The faculty members hold degrees from Europe, the United States, and Japan. They regularly participate in international seminars and in international academic organizations. The Department has also sponsored the annual meetings of numerous international special education organizations. Lastly, the Department actively pursues academic exchange with sister schools overseas, and encourages students to engage in foreign exchange studies.
Curriculum

The undergraduate program is supported by a complete teacher education academic department. Considering students’ prospective career choices, two tracks are offered: teacher training and nonteacher training. Students in the teacher training track develop professional qualifications for careers as special education teachers and must complete 138 credits. Students in the nonteacher training track are not required to complete special education teacher certification courses, and are therefore required to complete only 128 credits. Students in the department can further specialize in education for people with physical or mental disabilities, people who are intellectually gifted, or a combination of these concentrations. According to their individual interests, students can also pursue minors or dual majors in other subjects to develop into well-rounded special education professionals.

Characteristics of our curriculum include: 1) a core curriculum comprising courses required for all students; 2) an emphasis on both teaching materials and methods and practical courses to integrate theoretical and practical learning; and 3) mandatory student community service to enhance student social participation and social awareness.

Theory and practice are equally valued in all the courses in the graduate programs, which are divided into the disabled and gifted tracks. Each semester, a seminar is held on one special education topic. Based on the development, trends, and relevance of a topic, scholars and experts from various fields are invited to share their professional experiences and research findings. Both faculty and students participate in these seminars to create an academic atmosphere and implement situational education.

Prospects
  1. Focus on the professional development of students to enhance their competitiveness in society.
  2. Establish diverse programs to foster special education professionals to meet the ongoing needs of the field and of society.
  3. Continue encouraging academic research to improve the academic performance of faculty and students.
  4. Strengthen the student associations and to joint resources for the Department.
  5. Actively pursue international promotion and academic exchanges to broaden the Department’s academic influence.
History

The groundwork of the nation's first education effort in library and information studies began in 1955, as an undergraduate track within the Department of Adult and Continuing Education at the National Taiwan Normal University. The independent Graduate Institute of Library and Information Studies was established in 2002 to nurture higher talents for library and information services in meeting the needs of the knowledge-based society.

In 2005, we initiated the In-Service Master Program of Library and Information Studies, providing professional development opportunities for library and information service practitioners, with emphasis on knowledge and skills of information technologies. The Digital Content and Creative Teaching Advanced Certification Program was launched in 2006 in cooperation with three other departments -- Fine Arts, History, and Chinese -- to further promote interdisciplinary collaboration and nurture digital content talents. In 2008, the Institute was granted the permission by the Minister of Education to launch the Ph.D. program, and recruited doctoral students for the first cohort in June 2009.

Mission

Our goal lies in developing the managerial and research talents in knowledge services, as well as conducting research in knowledge preservation, organization, value creation, dissemination, and management, with the expectation to create values for knowledge users in the knowledge-based society.

We aim to cultivate students into roles as:

  • Managerial Talents for Knowledge Services Institutions
  • Managerial Talents of Learning Resources Centers
  • Corporate and Institutional Knowledge Management Talents
  • Managerial Talents of Digital Content
  • Teaching and Research Talents in Library and Information Studies
Research Focus

The research development of the Institute reflects the core value of library and information science: promoting knowledge management at the personal, institutional and societal levels. We have been teaching and conducting cutting-edge research in the following three major areas: knowledge organization, information behavior, and information communication.

In addition to the above-mentioned cross-disciplinary research areas, the Institute also excels and promises to cultivate the corresponding applications:

  • Digital Collections and Electronic Publishing
  • Information Literacy and E-learning
  • Internet Technologies and Web-based Information Services
Prospects LIS is a science that constantly evolves for innovation, from print information to knowledge, from readers to users. In the knowledge-based society, we exist to provide education and leadership in LIS, as well as empower the competitive advantage of our students through keeping track of industry outlook of knowledge services, and creating collaborative opportunities between academia and industry.
History The master's program started in 1991 and the Ph.D. program in 1997.
Mission Our mission is to prepare students at the master's and doctoral levels to become leaders in the professions of e-Learning and computer science education. Students focusing on e-Learning studies are expected to graduate with adequate knowledge and skills to promote e-Learning and be able to contribute to the digitization of Taiwan's education and training systems. Students concentrating on computer science education studies shall acquire professional competence in implementing computer science education at all school levels.
Features The seven faculty members of ICE are all full-time professors renowned in and dedicated to their fields of expertise. They also play the leading roles in the development of our nation’s e-Learning and computer science education by actively participating in the related policy-making processes.
Curriculum

Our curriculum offers required and elective courses in e-Learning and computer science education. The e-Learning courses include Introduction to e-Learning, Instructional Design for e-Learning, e-Learning Management Systems, e-Learning Evaluation, Cognition and e-Learning, mobile e-Learning, User Interface Design for e-Learning, simulation-based e-Learning, Game-based e-Learning and Introduction to School ICT Integration.

The computer science education courses include Introduction to Computer Science Education, Computer Curriculum Planning, Computer Science Instructional Methods, Design and Development of Instructional Materials for Computer Courses, and Introduction to Computer Programming Instruction.

In addition, research methods and statistical courses are provided for students in both areas, which include Research Methods in Information and Computer Education (required), Advanced Applied Statistics (required), Statistical Data Analysis, Educational Statistics, and Qualitative Research Methods.

Prospects In terms of medium- and long-run goals, ICE plans to cooperate with other domestic and foreign organizations to promote e-Learning and computer science education projects and become one of the top research institutions in both areas.
History In order to train more professionals to serve people with disabilities, the Graduate Institute of Rehabilitation Counseling at National Taiwan Normal University was established in August 2004. In addition to a regular graduate program, this institute also set up a continuing education program to provide professional knowledge and academic research training for professionals in Rehabilitation Counseling on campus. Currently, this institute is one of the three leading institutes of the field around the nation.
Mission

This institute intends to provide professional development in the three areas related to rehabilitation counseling: training vocational rehabilitation professionals, psychological counseling professionals, and assistive technology specialists.

Specialties of the faculties at this Institute

  1. Offering sturdy research and teaching force
  2. Cultivating multiplex professionals in the field of rehabilitation counseling
  3. Developing international e-courses
Features The curriculum content aims to bridge the gap between theories and practices to equip students with professional knowledge and competencies. The framework of the curriculum is structured with four components, including: vocational evaluation, assistive technology, counseling and guidance, and research methodology. A minimum requirement for graduation is completion of 32 credits hour courses, including: a practicum of 360 hours.
Prospects
  1. Establishing direct service programs to people with disabilities.
  2. Expanding academic research areas in various aspects related to rehabilitation counseling.
  3. Advocating establishment of certification system in Rehabilitation Counseling.
History

The master’s program in creativity development was established in 2004 as a response to national policy and trends in academia. The initiative was a collaborative effort between the former dean of the college, Mr. Wu-tien Wu, and the top teachers and scholars from all departments in the college. The aim of the program is to develop students’ creativity, in the hope that they will later become inspiring teachers. The continuing education master’s program – the first of its kind established by a college division at NTNU – goes hand in hand with the Ministry of Education’s policy on fostering teachers’ creativity.

Our faculty is comprised of top-notch teachers from the departments of Special Education; Educational Psychology and Counseling; Information and Computer Education; Adult and Continuing Education. We have visiting professors from other institutions in Taiwan, as well as guest instructors from the departments of Industrial Education, Fine Arts, Music, and Performing Arts.

Since 2004, we have kept the size of our class to fewer than 25 students, making sure that every student has the opportunity to participate in class.

Mission It is our goal to provide a learning environment in which students can generate and apply their creativity. We hope that creativity will spread from the individual to educational institutions, communities, and industries, making Taiwan a land of creativity, mirroring the school’s transformation to a comprehensive university. Honesty, integrity, tenacity, and simplicity are the four core values of the school. With that in mind, the program is dedicated to creating a great learning and research environment by training excellent teachers as role models, cultivating professionals in various areas, and improving academic performance and the entire learning experience.
Features
  1. The program offers a variety of courses and emphasizes students’ ability to generate and apply creativity. Outside of the classroom we offer opportunities for students to present their ideas via performances, presentations, and demonstrations. Many of our students have made outstanding achievements in various fields.
  2. Seminars are held with guest speakers from all walks of life, including inventors, visionaries, patent examiners, and creative entrepreneurs.
  3. Our teachers create a lively atmosphere in the classroom by interacting with students. Conferences on creative academic topics are co-held by the program and institutions from around the world.
  4. To combine theory and practice, we provide an interdisciplinary curriculum, including education, arts, music, industrial education and creativity.
Curriculum The five core clusters of courses are as follows:
  1. Creativity Development
  2. Research Methods
  3. Creativity in Education
  4. Creativity in Industry
  5. Creativity in Culture
Prospects
  1. The Hub of Creativity Talents. We hope to nurture talents that will apply their creativity not only in class but also in a wide range of industries in the country.
  2. Academic Research in Creativity. When it comes to integrating theory and practice, our teachers lead by example. The future of the only education institution offering postgraduate creativity related studies will see many collaborations. Students and teachers will work together on academic research, combining the theories taught with learned applications.
Introduction Founded in August 1968, the primary function of the department was to train secondary school teachers for the school subjects of Civic Education, Scouting Education and that of the Three Principles of People, as well as for the management of student affairs in the school. Until 1983 students were being admitted and taught in two separate divisions, one for the Three Principles of People and the other one for the scouting education, this had been abolished due to the needs of social change and educational development. A masters degree program was then instituted in 1990, and a doctoral program in 1999. In 2002, the department has changed its name from the Department of Civic and Moral Education to the Department of Civic Education and Leadership.
Goals Currently there are over 300 undergraduates, more than 200 Master students and over 40 Ph.D. students. With regard to building students careers, the main goals are:
  • At the junior high school level, to train teachers of Social Studies (civic and moral education) and Integrated Activities (scouting education); at the senior high school level, to train teachers of Citizenship and Society, and also teachers of Social Science in vocational high schools.
  • To develop experts of student affairs at all levels.
  • To undertake academic research in the fields of human-rights education, law-related education, democratic education, economics education, out-door and leisure education, student affairs, multicultural education and so on.
  • To aid various schools and social organizations in their research into and development of humanrights education, law-related education, democratic education, economics education, out-door and leisure education, student affairs, multicultural education and so on.

Curriculum The undergraduate program (requiring 128 credits at minimum) is formulated into various groups of courses: civic education, out-door and leisure education, study of government and public affairs, the study of finance and economics. In addition to the core courses required for all students, students are able to choose among the five groups of courses to meet their demands of career prospects, which are no more confined to a school-teacher. The master (requiring 29 credits at minimum) and Ph.D.
programs (requiring 29 credits at minimum) are divided into three areas of expertise: Civic and Moral Education, Student Affairs, and Study of Outdoor Education and Leadership. To support the idea of life-long education, the department also provides opportunities for continuing and adult education.
Features This department is not only committed to the ideal of a general education which gives student a wide base of knowledge, but also to the traditional focus on a teacher-training program. However, we also emphasize the leadership character of a student, which is required to the practices of organizing school activity projects and to manage student affairs of various sorts. Our faculty members are also engaged in a wide variety of researching programs such as human-rights education, law-related education, democratic education, multicultural education, economics education, out-door and leisure education, student affairs and so on.
Future prospects Due to overly supplying teachers in Taiwan, there will be quotas of spaces for teacher-training programs, to the extent that over half of the students admitted in the department might not be able to do the teacher training program. To the multiple prospects of a students career, the department, thus, accommodate teacher training program of the undergraduate courses with those of finance and economics, government and public affairs, leisure and outdoor education, and student affairs in higher education. In the future, there will be separate courses for students who will not take a teacher training program.

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